The content on Shampoo and Scalp Analysis of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Cosmetology licensing examination makes up 4% to 8% of the questions. This is the third of ten topics outlined for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Cosmetology licensing examination to become a certified cosmetologist in Massachusetts.
The total US salon services and salon retail sales were $62 billion in 2016, Modern Salon. There are over 270,000 salons and barbershops in the US. In the US, the average person washes their hair twice a week. This means we use a lot of shampoo and conditioner. It also means a need for cosmetologists.
Shampoo and Conditioner
Shampoo is a hair care product that is used for cleaning of the hair. The goal of shampooing one's hair is to remove the unwanted build-up of grease, oil, dust, chemicals from styling products and other foreign substances. Specialized shampoo can remove dandruff, repair dry scalp or soften hair.
Purpose of Shampoo and Conditioner - shampoo is used as a cleaning agent to remove unwanted build-up in the hair without stripping out too much sebum as to make the hair unmanageable. Conditioner is used to change the texture and appearance of the hair. Hair conditioners can contain moisturizers, detanglers, glossers, lubricants, oils and/or sunscreen to protect the scalp.
Chemistry of Shampoo and Conditioner - Shampoo is a combination of many chemicals and water. Shampoo can be composed of Sodium Chloride, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, and Glycol with the purpose of foaming, rinsing, reducing eye irritation, adding fragrance, lowering acidity and the repairing of damaged hair.
- Cleaning Agents - surfactants are responsible for cleaning action and largely determine the hair's condition after shampooing.
- Modifying Agents - other surfactants that are used as thickeners, preservatives, emulsifiers, color additives and foam boosters. Humectants are also present to retain moisture.
- pH - measured on a scale between 0 and 14, with 7 being neutral. A hair care product that is too acidic will cause the cuticle to contract and one that is too alkaline will cause the hair cuticle to open. pH adjusters are added to shampoo and conditioner to return damaged or greasy hair back to a more neutral pH.
Scalp Conditioning Services - used to clean and stimulate the scalp. If abrasions are present it is not recommended that the cosmetologist massage a client's scalp. Scalp conditioning is done before or during a shampoo to offer relaxation. Hair brushing stimulates the blood circulation to the scalp and helps remove any dust, dirt or buildup in the hair.
Shampoo Procedure - The client must wear protective equipment including a gown and/or towel to protect their clothing. The client will lean back into the wash basin. The cosmetologist will want to run the water on their hand to check the water temperature. They will try not to wet the client's face by directing the water towards the wash basin. The cosmetologist will use a suitable shampoo for the client's hair type. They will use small, firm, circular massage movements. Then, properly rinse out all the shampoo from the hair, applying a second shampoo if necessary. The cosmetologist will gently squeeze the hair to remove excess water. Finally, the cosmetologist will wrap a towel around the hair to stop any water from dripping into the client's eyes or on their face.
Scalp Massage - The cosmetologist will begin by washing and sanitizing their hands. The client will be draped properly to protect their clothing. The cosmetologist will detangle any hair and apply a scalp product to repair scalp issues. Then they will begin scalp massage through the following techniques:
- Effleurage Scalp Manipulation - used to warm up the scalp with long, soothing, stroking movement. Helps the client relax and offers better circulation in the scalp.
- Petrissage Scalp Manipulation - involves kneading, rolling, squeezing and pinching movements in a circular motion to increase blood circulation in the scalp. It can help stimulate the skin, eliminate knots, improve muscle tone, increase blood flow and improve the elimination of waste products from the scalp's tissue.
The cosmetologist will analyze the client's hair to see if they have any hair loss, thinning, breakage, itching, flaking or tenderness of the scalp. These scalp issues can be caused by a disorder or disease of the scalp.
Disorders and Diseases of the Scalp
There are many different disorders and diseases of the scalp. Most can be corrected by special shampoos and conditioners. Others can be corrected by medication. Some of the disorders and diseases of the scalp include:
Dandruff - a build-up of shedding dead skin.
Dry Scalp - an itchy and flaky scalp that can allow bacteria in and cause an infection.
Seborrheic Dermatitis - a reddening of the scalp with a greasy look and feel.
Cradle Cap - greasy, yellowish scales or crust on the scalp.
Head Lice - wingless insects that lay eggs on the hair, close to the scalp.
Ringworm - an infection that leaves round, scaly, red rashes and patches of hair loss on the scalp.
Folliculitis - infection of the hair follicle. Can be caused by bacteria or be an irritation from shaving, makeup or clothing.
Psoriasis - causes the body to make too many new skin cells.
Lichen Planus - can be caused from stress, genetics or the hepatitis virus - an autoimmune disease where the body's immune system attacks the body by mistake. Lichen planus looks like flat-topped, purple or reddish bumps on the skin.
Alopecia - hair loss due to genetics, medications, inflammation, or hair fragility.
Ready to become a cosmetologist? Do you want to get ready for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Cosmetology licensing examination? The Cosmetology Certificate program at Mildred Elley in Pittsfield, MA qualifies and prepares its graduates for successful passage of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Cosmetology licensing examination, administered by the Board of Registration of Cosmetologists, and successful practice in the field of cosmetology and appearance enhancement.
Contact us today to learn more about becoming a cosmetologist in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.